Take Home Problems for Star Formation over Cosmic Time
(Prizes offered for Solutions)

1. What determines the physical dispersion of the density pdf in a turbulent multi-phase medium?

2. Why is it taking so long to establish if clouds have internally or externally generated turbulence? What is the essential problem-observations, theory. How to proceed?

3. Do clump masses in clouds really have a characteristic mass spectrum that maps into star masses or is this only true for some
clouds? Linear map, non-linear map? Why?

4. What determines the transition at very early times from high mass stars >100M_sun to order M_sun? Metals Z~ 10^(-5) transition? Why?

5. What is the angular momentum distribution of initial stars i.e. IJF ( or F(v_rot/v_crit) ). Note: Rapidly rotating stars evolve differently. CHES mechanism. At early cosmic epochs rapid rotators can give more ionizing photons and harder spectrum. Does this happen?

6. How does interstellar medium evolve with cosmic epoch. Is there a phase transition with z and Z?

7. Feedback in clouds <-> feedback in galaxies. What can we learn?

8. What is quenching? What is downsizing? Does study of feedback in star formation <-> any robust ideas re quenching? Similar Bondi accretion over scales from protostars -> supermassive black holes. Why?

9. What makes spiral structure? What is physics of the Mezeoscopic regime. Global ISM-> clouds->stars. How to develop realistic and full scale global turbulent ISM models with outflows, disk halo circulation: metals, energy, cosmic rays…..

10. High redshift timescale problems for star formation galaxy formation and compact object formation. How do you make massive black holes at very high z (>6-7) and galaxies at z=8-10 ? Role of B-fields?, role of metals?, angular momentum? (Note:Cosmic time order of a galactic rotation time at z~10!)